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A/B Story
"A" story is the main story/theme. "B" story refers to the background story.

The scene description, character movement, and sounds as described in a screenplay.

Academy Leader
AKA "S.M.P.T.E. leader." The countdown leader used at the beginning of a film, which allows the lab to line up the sound.

Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Awards
The coveted annual award, the "Oscar," which is presented to the best of the best.

Academy of Motion Picture Sound
A UK-based organization whose aims are to promote and encourage the science, technology and creative application of all aspects of motion picture sound recording and reproduction, and to promote and enhance the status and recognition of the contribution of those therein engaged.

"Action" is called during filming to indicate the start of the current take.

The "talent" who plays the role of a character.

Rewriting of fact or fiction for film presentation, usually in the form of a completed screenplay, or a proposal treatment.

Advance Print Run
Printing of a book completed before the book's official release date.

Agency Meeting
Gathering in which, a potential client of an agency meets with the agents to discuss the agents' plan and goals for creating a career for the potential client.

Manager responsible for the professional business dealings of an actor, director, screenwriter, or other artist. An agent typically negotiates the contracts and often has some part in selecting or recommending roles for their client.

American Cinematic Editors
Union guild for film/video editors; also known as ACE

American Society of Cinematographers
Organization dedicated to advancing the art of cinematography.

Villain of the film or script who is in conflict with the protagonist.

Anything that happens in the final few moments of a film that dulls down the story crescendo and leaves the audience feeling let down and unsatisfied.

Protagonist who has pronounced personality or character defects or eccentricities, which are not usually associated with the hero archetype.

Part of book that follows a chapter (end-of-chapter appendix) or, more commonly, that comes after all the chapters (end-of-book appendix). An appendix contains supplemental material, such as tables or source material, which does not conveniently fit into a chapter.

Art Department
Crew concerned with visual artistry of a production. Members of art dept. include: Art director, assistant art director, draftsman, leadman, production designer, production buyer, property master, set dresser, special effects supervisor, among others.

Art Director
Individual who oversees the artists and crafts people who build sets.

Sensitivity to light, which measures the film's speed. (Example: ASA 400.) "ASA" stands for American Standards Association.

Assistant Director
Duties include tracking the progress of filming versus the production schedule.

Assistant Film Editor
Editing room crew member responsible for providing logistical assistance to the editor.

Avant Garde
Experimental or highly independent film that is often the forerunner of a new artistic genre.



b.g. (background)
Used to describe anything occurring in a rear plane of action. Always use this term in lower case initials or written in full ("background"). Example: two people talk as Bill and Ted fight in the b.g.

Back-of-the-Room Sales
Sales made at a book table or booth that is set up at an event. Often when an author is speaking or participating in a conference or panel discussion, that author's books are on sale, usually at a table at the back of the auditorium or in the hallway.

Many scripts will use the parenthetical "(beat)" to interrupt a line of dialog. A "beat" is an exchange of behavior in action/reaction.

Behind the Scenes
The off-camera goings on associated with film/video making.

Best Boy
Chief assistant, usually of the gaffer. More often lately used as a general term for the second in command of a group.

Black Comedy
Comedy in which the humor is derived from subjects which are typically considered "serious", or for which humor is usually considered as unsuitable: death, war, misery.

Book Doctor
1) Experienced copyeditor who provides a deep structural edit for a book manuscript. 2) The procedure of improving and reorganizing structure, content and order of a book manuscript. Compare to Developmental Editor.

Bounce Card
Silver or white card that is used to bounce light onto a subject.



Certificate of Authorship
Form signed by the author of a screenplay or other written work that warrants the author's work is original, does not libel another party, does not invade anyone's privacy, and will not cause the buyer of the work to be sued for any legal action.

In a screenplay, the name appears in all caps the first time a character is introduced in the "Action." The character's name can then be written normally, in the action, the rest of the script.

Character Actor
Actor who specializes in playing a particular style of character, often stereotypical, offbeat, or humorous.

Character Arc
Formulaic inferred curved line which traces the development, growth, and transformation of a character over the course of the screenplay.

Color portion of a video signal.

Small board which holds information identifying a shot: working title of the movie, names of director and DP, scene and take numbers, date, and time. Used at the beginning of a take, the clapboard has a hinged stick, which is "clapped" to provide audio/visual synchronization.

Code Numbers
Edge numbers that are inked onto a work print and mag track after syncing.

Color Bars
Standard video test pattern, which includes samples of primary and secondary colors.

Color Consultant
Technical advisor with expertise in film stock and film developing, who provides advice for cinematographers and color timers.

Color Temperature
Method for measuring the overall color of a light source, measured in degrees Kelvin (deg.K). Daylight is approximately 5500 degree. K. Fluorescent Lights are approx. 4100 degree. K. Indoor incandescent lights are 2800 degree .K and professional Movie Lights are 3200 Degree. K

Contingent Compensation
Form of compensation received by a writer, after the writing services have been completed, if he is awarded writing credit for the project. The contingent compensation may include a production bonus, net profits, reserved rights, and/or additional payments in the event of a film or television sequel, remake, or spin-off.

Sometimes instead of DAY or NIGHT at the end of a SLUGLINE/Location Description, you'll see CONTINUOUS. Basically, continuous refers to action that moves from one location to another without any interruptions in time. For example, in an action movie, the hero may run from the airport terminal into a parking garage. The sequence may include cuts, but the audience would perceive the action as a continuous sequence of events from the terminal to the lobby to the street to the garage to the second floor to a car etc. CONTINUOUS is generally optional in writing and can be dropped altogether.

Copyeditor (CE, Copy Editor)
Person who edits or redacts copy (manuscript material) submitted by an author. Such editing has the goal of correcting grammar irregularities and inconsistencies and of correcting punctuation, spelling, usage and style.

Copyright (Copyright Page, Copyright Notice)
Ownership of intellectual property such as printed matter, protected by law. The right to copy, repurchase or publish content of the copyrighted medium.

Co-op Advertising
Advertising whose cost is shared between or among different companies. Such advertising is especially advantageous to smaller companies with limited budgets. Such ads are also called cooperative advertising. In some co-op advertising, a publisher or manufacturer offers incentives or discounts to retailers who promote particular books or products.

Performed by a reader, this process involves a script synopsized, reviewed, and evaluated with respect to the story, character development, plot development and so forth, and then rated, with the intention of informing others as to whether or not the script is worthy of further consideration.

The authorship given to a written work in the entertainment industry. For film: "Story by," "Screenplay by," and "Written by." For TV: "Created by," Story by," and "Teleplay by."

Credit Arbitration
Process run by the Writers Guild of America in which disputes concerning the award of credit (as in "Story by, "Screenplay by," "Teleplay by," and "Written by") are decided. The method in which these decisions take place has the WGA sending all drafts of the disputed work to three separate individuals; separately and without knowledge of each other, they decide which writer deserves the award of credit. When two of the three individuals agree on the award of credit, the decision is considered final.



Process in which a script is altered, changed, modified, etc., by a series of collaborative meetings between the writer and/or production executive, studio executive, director, or other individuals who may be attached to the project.

Developmental Editor
Person who deals with the overall organization of a book's manuscript rather than with changes such as wording of sentences within paragraphs. A developmental editor also addresses reordering entire blocks of text and such an edit may extend to reordering entire chapters. The edit may also address tone, voice, addition or deletion of material, complexity of material and transitions among paragraphs and sections of the book. Compare to Book Doctor.

Drop Frame
Type of SMPTE time code designed to exactly match the real time of common clocks. Two frames of time code are dropped every minute, on the minute, except every tenth minute. This corrects for the fact that video frames occur at a rate of 29.97 per second, rather than an exact 30 frames per second.

Dramatic Value change
Meaningful change of the intensity/level of dramatic situation of a character over the duration of an entire scene or sequence of scenes.



Electronic file format to which books may be published. Although dedicated devices may be used to read eBooks, they may be read on other platforms such as PDA's and personal computers as well.

Edit Decision List (EDL)
Complete list of time code numbers for each shot and sound used in the off-line edit master. These time code numbers are used to create the final on-line edit master.

Endorsement (Blurb)
Promotional statement by someone recommending a book, often found on the dust cover or near the front of the book.

A shot, usually from a distance, that shows us where we are. It is a shot that suggests location. Often used at the beginning of a film to suggest where the story takes place. For example, if our story takes place in New York, we might use a shot of the Manhattan skyline as an establishing shot.

Establishing Shot
Wide shot showing much of the location.

Executive Producer
Producer who is not involved in any technical aspects of the filmmaking process, but who is still responsible for the overall production usually handling business and legal issues.

Exterior. This scene takes place out of doors. This is mostly for producers to figure out the probable cost of a film project.



Feature Film
In the olden days of cinema, people watched a series of short films. Then, as films became longer, they would watch some short films and one long film. The long film became the main attraction, hence the term feature film. Today, feature films are generally defined as any film at least one hour long that people pay to see.

First Draft
As set forth in the Writers Guild of America Minimum Basic Agreement, a first complete draft of any script in continuity form, including dialogue.

Final Draft (1)
As in all writing, this refers to the writers last rewrite of a script. Often the script will be changed or rearranged again by the director.

Final Draft (2)
Very rarely, a script will appear as a Final Draft document. This means only people with a screenplay formatting word processor known as Final Draft or the appropriate Final Draft viewer can view the document appropriately. The Final Draft Viewer is available as a free download. For those of you interested in screenwriting, Final Draft is one of many excellent professional screenwriting tools and can be obtained in many software stores or from

Frame Rate
Movies are created by taking a rapid sequence of pictures (frames) of action and by displaying these frames at the same rate at which they were recorded, the illusion of motion can be created. Film=24 frames per second and Video=30fps (in Europe using P.A.L.=25 fps).


General Meeting
A "look-see" type of meeting in which a writer meets with a producer, production executive, studio executive, and so forth, as a form of introduction. Generally, in this meeting the producer, production executive, studio executive, and so forth, does not have a specific project in mind for which the writer will be hired.

Broad category or kind of book, generally denoted by the book's subject matter. Some examples of book genres include romance, sci-fi, self-help and true crime.

Person contracted by an author or publisher to write or co-write a book. A ghostwriter's work often goes un-credited upon publication.



Hardcover Book
Book that has cloth material glued to a type of pasteboard material, forming a durable cover and spine. Reference books and lending library books are often bound in this way.

Video format technically similar to SVHS, which uses smaller cassettes

High Concept
Phrase connected with scripts, which have a premise or storyline which is easily reduced to a simple and appealing one line.

Agent/agency's practice in which an individual(s) is represented by the agent/agency on a single project only, with no agreement that the agency or agent will continue to represent the individual once the project or interest in the project has ended.


Independent Film /Indie
Movie not produced by a major studio.

The audience can only see so much through the window of a movie screen. Use this term to suggest something or someone comes into the picture while the camera pulls back (pans, etc) to reveal more of the scene.





Technique of shrinking the image just enough so that its entire width appears on TV screen, with black areas above and below the image

Line Producer
Producer who is responsible for managing every person and issue during the making of a film.

Line Editor
Person who performs an edit that is heavier than a typical copyedit and who considers a book's voice, tone and phrasing. Fiction line editing considers the story's pacing, character development, handling of details and vocabulary of the period and place where the novel is set and the naturalness and effectiveness of dialogue. A line editor also focuses on correcting errors in grammar, punctuation and writing style.

Literary Agent
Person who functions as intermediary for an author in transactions with the publisher.

Lined Script
Copy of the shooting script which is prepared by the script supervisor during production to indicate, via notations and vertical lines drawn directly onto the script pages, exactly what coverage has been shot.

Literary Manager
Individual hired by a writer to promote his career, offer advice on the best steps to take to achieve the desired goal, and give guidance on the best people to hire to aid the writer in maximizing his potential.



Term used by Alfred Hitchcock to refer to an item, event, or piece of knowledge that the characters in a film consider extremely important, but which the audience either doesn't know of or doesn't care about.

Complete version of a book (often as an electronic text file) as prepared by the author. The term manuscript refers to both textual and graphic elements of the book. Editors and authors make pre-production book alterations to the manuscript. The finalized manuscript is used to produce a set of book pages.

Mass-Market Paperback
Smaller, less expensive version of a book that is usually printed well after the hardcover and trade paperback versions have been made available. Mass-market paperbacks are often sold in grocery stores and airports. Compare Trade Paperback.

Materials Contract
Contract for representation by an agency with regard to the sale of a work that the writer has created on his own, in a situation where the writer was not hired to create the work.

Matte Artist
Individual who creates artwork (usually for the background of a shot) which is included in the movie either via a matte shot or optical printing.

Matte Shot
Photographic technique whereby artwork - usually on glass - from a matte artist is combined with live action.

In film it is a series of images showing a theme, a contradiction, or the passage of time. This film style became common in Russia in the early years of cinema. Russians were the first to truly use editing to tell a story. Some early examples of montage include City Symphony's and Man With a Movie Camera. Modern day examples of montages can be seen in Kramer vs. Kramer and Bugsy.

Motion Picture Association
Association that serves as the voice and advocate of the American motion picture, home video and television industries, domestically through the MPAA and internationally through the MPA.

Motion Picture Editors Guild
Professional organization for editors.


NC-17: No One 17 and Under Admitted
A certificate issued by the MPAA indicating that no person aged 17 or under will be allowed to attend a screening of the movie. This category was formerly called "X", but many people's mistaken association of "X" films with XXX films caused the MPAA to change this on September 27, 1990.

Nonexclusive Contract
Legal agreement in which the publisher does not exercise exclusive rights over the materials published in the author's book.

N.T.S.C. (National Television Standards Committee)

Created the first international television system for use in the U.S. and other countries, which produces pictures by creating 525 alternating lines across the TV screen for each frame of video.



Off-the-Book-Page Attention
Mention made of a book in the media outside the context of a book review, for instance, a celebrity plugging a book on a talk show.

O.S. or O.C.
Off-screen or Off-camera. This is the abbreviation sometimes seen next to the CHARACTER'S name before certain bits of dialog. Basically, it means the writer specifically wants the voice to come from somewhere unseen.


If an actor should deliver his or her lines in a particular way, a screenplay will contain a description in parentheses to illustrate the point. Parenthetical should be used only in cases where a line of dialog should be read in some way contrary to logic. If used too often, an actor's and a director's egos get hurt, and things get messy.

1) Agreement from a copyright holder that permits the reproduction or publication of copyrighted material. 2) Process of securing agreements from copyright holder.

Meeting in which one party will attempt to interest another party in a particular work or in a version of a particular work by presenting the story of the work in such an exciting manner that the buying party will find great interest in the work and will either buy the work or pay the "pitching" party to write the work.

Point of View (literature)
Story's narrative style. A style in which the author is first-person (tells the story as a character using "I"), third-person (portrays the feelings, thoughts and ideas of one character, but is not actually involved in the story) or omniscient (an uninvolved third-person perspective that knows everything about the characters involved and can share all things with the reader).

POV (film, TV)
Point of View. The camera replaces the eyes (sometimes the ears) of a character, monster, machine, surveillance camera, etc. As a result, we get to see the world through the sensory devices of some creature. This can be used to bring out the personal aspects of a scene, or it can be used to build horror and suspense. An example of horror and suspense in POV can be scene in the opening shot of Halloween.

The basic idea for a story often taking the form of a question or a problem.

Principal Photography
The filming of major or significant components of a movie, which involve lead actors.

Print-on-Demand (POD)
Publishing arrangement in which books are printed only as orders are placed.

Producer (Film)
The chief of a movie production in all matters save the creative efforts of the director; raising funding, hiring key personnel, and arranging for distributors.

Producer (TV)
Usually a current or former writer who has successfully written for a number of years as a staff member on a show and is now responsible for the creative aspects of the show.

Production Assistant
Individual responsible for various odd jobs, such as stopping traffic, acting as couriers, fetching items from craft service, etc.

Production Designer
Artist responsible for designing the overall visual appearance of a movie.

Production Illustrator
Individual responsible for drawing the storyboards and anything else that needs to be drawn during the production of the movie.

Production Manager
Individual responsible for the practical matters such as ordering equipment, getting near-location accommodations for the cast and crew, etc.

Production Schedule
Detailed plan of the timing of activities associated with the making of a movie, of particular interest to production managers.

Read through of typeset material to ensure that content matches the book's manuscript. Incorrect grammar, punctuation, spelling or usage, is queried to the editor.

Public Domain
The state in which the creator of a work loses the copyright on it through the passage of the copyright period, failure to renew the work, or problems with the original registration of the work with the copyright office.

Professional who promotes a book, often by generating free advertising. A press agent.




Individual who reads scripts and writes down synopsis of the plotlines, offering positive or negative comments (the process is called "providing coverage"), which assist studio execs or interested parties if script is worthwhile.

Reading Period
Period after a writer has been hired to write an assignment that a hiring body will review. This body will give suggestions and decide whether to pick up the option to have the writer produce further work.

Gross funds from a film that are required to pay off negative costs, overhead, ongoing distribution fees, interest, financing and distribution costs, and, in appropriate cases, payment of gross participations.

Release Form
Statement signed by an individual that generally frees the creator of the document from any kind of liability.

Release Print
Print made after the "answer print" has been agreed upon. This is the copy of the film that is distributed to theatrical houses for public presentation.

More than a polish, this is considered the writing of significant changes in plot, story line, or interrelationship of characters in a screenplay.



Sample Script
Script a writer has created on his own initiative and used to attain meetings for the writer in order to expose him to the entertainment industry.

An event that takes place entirely in one location or time. If we go outside from inside, it's a new scene. If we cut to five minutes later, it's a new scene. If both, it's a new scene. Scenes can range from one shot to infinity and are distinguished by slug lines.

Screen Story
Credit given to a writer who has written a screenplay based on another writer's work but has used the other writer's work only as a springboard, a characterization, an incident, or some equally limited contribution, creating a story that is substantially new and different from the other writer's work.

Second Unit
Small, subordinate crew responsible for filming shots of less importance, such as inserts, crowds, scenery, etc.

System of book production in which the author generally assumes the financial risk of publication. The self-publishing model circumvents the need for an author to contract with a publishing house to ensure publication of the book. A self-published book is also usually distributed and marketed by its author. See also Subsidy Publishing; Supported Self-Publishing.

Sell Sheet
Concise, one-page document (resembling a flyer or brochure more than a press release) that provides details about a book.

Shooting Ratio
Ratio of the film shot compared to the actual running time. (Example: Ten hours of footage for a 1 hour film would have a 10:1 shooting ratio).

Shooting Schedule
Production schedule for shooting a film with the scenes from a script grouped together and ordered with production considerations in mind.

Shooting Script
Script from which a movie is made which contains that includes scene numbers, camera angles, inserts, and certain directors/cinematographers input.

Short Subject/ Short
Movie that is shorter than 60 minutes.

One image. If there's a cut, you've changed shots. Shots can range from split seconds to several minutes. Shots are generally chosen by the director. Continuous block of unedited footage from a single point of view. When a writer absolutely must have a certain shot at a certain moment in a film, he has a few options each described in detail elsewhere in this list: INSERT, ANGLE ON, and CLOSE ON.

Shot Composition
Arrangement of key elements within the frame.

Shotgun Mic
Highly directional microphone that may be hand-held or mounted on a boom.

Situation Comedy
Comedy in which humor is derived from people being placed in uncomfortable, embarrassing, or unfamiliar situations.

Slapstick Comedy
Comedy in which the humor is derived from physical interactions, often involving exaggerated but ultimately harmless violence directed towards individuals.

Small blackboard (chalkboard) used to record the scene number of a specific shoot. Usually has a clapstick attached at the top, which is "clapped" to create a sync mark.

Slow Motion
Shot, which in which time appears to move more slowly than normal.

Slug Line/Slug
A header appearing in a script before each scene or shot detailing the location, date, and time that the following action is intended to occur in.

Sound Mix
Process of re-recording multiple reels of track to produce one final soundtrack, which includes all dialogue, "looped" dialogue (ADR), music, sound effects and foley, and narration (if any), for each reel of picture.

Spec Script/Screenplay
You won't see this term anywhere else on this site. If a writer finishes his own screenplay outside the studio system (it isn't an assignment) then sends it to the studios for consideration, it is a spec script.

Spec Script
Script written before any agreement has been entered into ("on spec" or speculation), in hopes of selling the script to the highest bidder once it has been completed.

Sequence of pictures created by a production illustrator to communicate the desired general visual appearance on camera of a scene or movie.

Story Event
Ideally every scene is a Story Event. It is expressed and experienced by a character in terms of a value and achieved through conflict.

Story Values
Universal qualities of human experience that may shift from positive to negative, or negative to positive, from one moment to the next.

Style Sheet
Document prepared during a copyedit, which enforces the standards and consistency of how numbers, abbreviations, word usage and punctuation are to be handled.

Subsidiary Rights
Rights acquired by a publisher for resale, translation into foreign languages and other reuse of a book's content.

Subsidy Publishing
A subsidy publisher shares publishing costs with the author. The publisher typically markets the book through retailers. An author must bear at least some of the cost of copyediting, typesetting, proofreading, indexing and printing the book. Some subsidy publishers require an author to purchase a large number of copies of the book to cover the costs of its initial publication. Compare Self-Publishing; Supported Self-Publishing.

Supported Self-Publishing
Method of self-publishing espoused by iUniverse, through which an author has access to many of the services found in a traditional publishing house (e.g., editorial services, marketing copywriters, Internet sales) provided through an upfront cost or available à la carte. Compare Self-Publishing; Subsidy Publishing.

The degree in which a picture and accompanying sound are lined up together.

Sync Sound
The sound (usually dialogue) that is actually recorded via a crystal or cable sync during filming. Not to be confused with room tone, sound effects, or other non-diagetic sound.

Process of which the film and sound are lined up before editing them together.

Summary of a story told in present tense.



Writer who either adapts an existing work for production on television, or creates a new teleplay.

Three-Act Structure
Traditional storytelling sequence, which includes (1) the set-up, (2) the complication, and (3) the resolution.

Subdivision of Lucasfilm, Ltd. that is dedicated to improving picture and sound for the cinema and the home.

Time Code
System of numbering each frame of video with a unique address divided into hours, minutes, seconds and frames.

Time Lapse Photography
Form of animation in which numerous single frames are filmed spaced at a given interval to show a process that would take a very long time to occur.

Process in, which a lab renders the proper exposure and color when creating a print. The brightness of the timing lights (or lamps) can be controlled and have a range from (1) the darkest to (50) the brightest.

Timing Report
Report produced by the lab, which lists the timing lights (or printing lights) that was used in processing a print.

Trade Paperback
A trade paperback is bound with a paper or heavy stock cover, usually with a larger trim size than that of a mass-market paperback. Compare Mass-Market Paperback.

Trade (Mainstream, Traditional Publishing)
Traditional way of publishing a book in, which an author must find a literary agent or a publisher willing to review the manuscript.

Newspapers that report the daily or weekly entertainment news of the entertainment industry; The Hollywood Reporter, Daily Variety, and Weekly Variety.

In the olden days of cinema, the advertisements for upcoming attractions were usually played after the end of the movie. Hence, they became known as trailers. But, as credits reels have grown in size over the years, audiences would often leave before watching these advertisements and "trailers" became "previews." But the name is still in common use. A trailer is a theatrical advertisement for an upcoming film attraction.

A movie in prose form, anywhere from 15-60pp, which details a blow-by-blow summary of the story (important details of each scene, action, and character) told in present tense and generally with no dialogue.

Trim Size
Final physical dimensions of a book page after the book is bound and trimmed.

Formatting a book on a computer so as to result in the desired layout, font and appearance on a printed page.


Unsolicited Manuscript
Manuscript sent to a publisher who did not request it.




An oscilloscope designed to monitor and tweak the color portion of the video signal.

Vertical Interval
Indicates the vertical blanking period between each video field, which contains additional scan lines above the active picture area into which non-picture information (captioning, copy protection and other control signals) may be embedded.

Virtual Book Tour (VBT)
Advertisement strategy centered on publicizing a book on the Internet, including ads on Web sites that the target audience frequents and book give-away's.

Voice Over. This is the abbreviation sometimes seen next to the CHARACTER'S name before certain bits of dialog. This means the character voices that dialog but his or her moving lips are not present in the scene. Voice over is generally used for narration, such as in the beginning of The Mummy. Or, as Austin Powers would say, a character's inner monolog. The inner thought processes of the character said out loud such that only the audience will hear it. An general example of Voice Over can be seen (heard, actually) in Election or in the Sixth Season Finale of The X-Files.

Voice-Over (V.O.)
Indicates that dialog will be heard on a movie's soundtrack, but the speaker will not be shown. The abbreviation is often used as an annotation in a script.



Web ring
Collection of associated Web sites with similar themes, which may be accessed through hypertext links, from one site to the next.

Company, group or individual who purchases high volumes of books from a publisher at deep discounts and sells them to retailers at midlevel discount.

Movie which has an aspect ratio which is greater than academy ratio when projected.

Word of Mouth
Free advertising for a book after its release through satisfied readers who recommend the book to others. The consumer base creates a buzz that in turn creates publicity.

Writer's Guild of America (WGA)
Association that representatives the writers in the motion picture, broadcast, cable, interactive and new media industries.

Writing Period
The time during which a writer is to complete his work. During this time the writer's services are generally exclusive to the production that has hired him.

Written by
The credit given when one or several writers have created both the story and the screenplay, and there is no source material. The credit is also given in television if the writer has created both the story and the teleplay.






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